Term Structure Models During the Global Financial Crisis: A Parsimonious Text Mining Approach
This work develops and estimates a three-factor term structure model with explicit sentiment factors in a period including the global financial crisis, where market confidence was said to erode considerably. It utilizes a large text data of real time, relatively high-frequency market news and takes account of the difficulties in incorporating market sentiment into the models. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use this category of data in term-structure models.
Although market sentiment or market confidence is often regarded as an important driver of asset markets, it is not explicitly incorporated in traditional empirical factor models for daily yield curve data because they are unobservable. To overcome this problem, we use a text mining approach to generate observable variables which are driven by otherwise unobservable sentiment factors. Then, applying the Monte Carlo filter as a filtering method in a state space Bayesian filtering approach, we estimate the dynamic stochastic structure of these latent factors from observable variables driven by these latent variables.
As a result, the three-factor model with text mining is able to distinguish (1) a spread-steepening factor which is driven by pessimists’ view and explaining the spreads related to ultra-long term yields from (2) a spread-flattening factor which is driven by optimists’ view and influencing the long and medium term spreads. Also, the three-factor model with text mining has better fitting to the observed yields than the model without text mining.
Moreover, we collect market participants’ views about specific spreads in the term structure and find that the movement of the identified sentiment factors are consistent with the market participants’ views, and thus market sentiment.
Although “market sentiment” is often regarded as an important driver of asset markets,1 it is not explicitly incorporated in traditional empirical factor models for the term structure of interest rates. This is because (1) it is not clear what sentiment factors mean, and moreover, (2) there are scant observations, if any, about these sentiment factors. This work formulates and estimates a factor model with explicit sentiment factors in the period including the global financial crisis, in which uncertainty was said to be heightened considerably. It utilizes a large text data of real-time, relatively high-frequency market news and takes account of the difficulties (1) and (2). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use this category of data in term-structure models.